The national flag of China was adopted at the First Plenary Session
of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference held in
September 1949, shortly before the founding of the People's Republic
The flag of the People's Republic of China is red in color and it
has five yellow stars. The color red symbolizes the spirit of the
revolution, and the five stars signify the unity of the people of
China under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party. The flag
first was raised in Tiananmen Square on October 1, 1949, upon the
formal announcement that People's Republic of China was founded.
The national emblem design representing the People's
Republic of China was unveiled by the Central People's Government
on September 20, 1950. It shows
Tiananmen under the light of five stars, and it is framed with
ears of grain and a cogwheel. Tiananmen is the symbol of modern
China because the May 4th Movement of 1919, which marked the beginning
of the new-democratic revolution in China, was launched there.
It is also the place where the inauguration of the People's Republic
of China was held. The cogwheel and the ears of grain represent
the working class and the peasantry respectively, and the five
stars symbolize the solidarity of the various nationalities of
China. The emblem clearly indicates that People's Republic of
China is a socialist state led by the working class and based
on the alliance of the workers and the peasants unified.
The words for the national anthem were written by
Tian Han, and the music was set by Nie Er in 1935. Originally
known as the March of the Volunteers, it was the theme song from
The Sons and Daughters in Times of Turmoil, a film that depicted
how Chinese intellectuals marched bravely to the front in the
War of Resistance Against Japan during the Second World War.
Deep, reverberating, militant and inspiring, the
emotional song describes the wrath of the Chinese people against
imperialist aggression and their determination to protect their
motherland against foreign invaders. During the Second World War
it was also sung by many other nationalities, those people of
other countries that sympathized with the Chinese in their anti-Japanese
struggle. In 1949 it was appropriately chosen to be the national
anthem of the People's Republic of China.
The lyrics of the national anthem are as follows:
Arise, ye who refuse to be
With our very flesh and blood
Let us build our new Great Wall!
The Peoples of China are in the most critical time,
Everybody must roar his defiance.
Arise! Arise! Arise!
Millions of hearts with one mind,
Brave the enemy's gunfire,
Brave the enemy's gunfire,
March on! March on! March on, on!